# PART 2 – USEFUL ELEMENTS

#### Chapter A. Understanding the finite elements

Chapter A. Understanding the finite elements A.1. What does a finite element software do? Exampl...

#### A1. What does the software do in a finite element calculation? The example of beam structures

A1. What does the software do in a finite element calculation? The example of beam structures Th...

#### A2. What is a finite element?

A2. What is a finite element? The resolution of the efforts in the elements is carried out follo...

#### Chapter B. Computational objectives and necessary characteristics of the tool

Chapter B. Computational objectives and necessary characteristics of the tool Creating a finite...

#### B. Calculation objectives and necessary tool characteristics

B. Calculation objectives and necessary tool characteristics Creating a finite element computat...

#### B.7 Organization of the calculation

B.7 Organization of the calculation This is an essential step to be carried out at the beginnin...

#### Chapter C. Good practices to create a model

Chapter C. Good practices to create a model The different levels of analysis and the complexity ...

#### C1. Input data and units

C1. Input data and units The input data must be consistent, whether these values are defined in ...

#### C2. Modeling of the main elements

C2. Modeling of the main elements C.2.1 Creating the geometry The first stage of modeling consi...

#### C3. FE and meshing

C3. FE and meshing C.3.1 Types of finite elements First and foremost, the user of FE software m...

#### C4. Modeling the non-structural elements or equipment

C4. Modeling the non-structural elements or equipment Non-structural elements and equipment are ...

#### C5. Boundary Conditions

C5. Boundary Conditions C.5.1 General case The boundary conditions are determined by the degree...

#### C6. Connections - links – assembly

C6. Connections - links – assembly C.6.1 Releasing the bars/springs/degrees of freedom In all m...

#### C7. Offsets

C7. Offsets Most finite element software offer several options to define a beam on a fiber othe...

#### C8. Composite Sections (Beams/Slabs)

C8. Composite Sections (Beams/Slabs) Composite sections are made up of the assembly, rigid or e...

#### C9. Materials

C9. Materials Part 1 Chapter 4 is dedicated to civil engineering materials and their specificiti...

#### C10. Specific behavior in shear and torsion

C10. Specific behavior in shear and torsion In general, it should be noted that beam element mod...

#### C11. Modeling the loading

C11. Modeling the loading As explained in chapter E, it is important to always verify for each l...

#### C12. More about solid elements

C12. More about solid elements The principles stated for 2D modeling remain applicable in 3D, in...

#### C13. More about non-linear calculations

C13. More about non-linear calculations This paragraph deals with non-linearities related to the...

#### C14. More about prestressed concrete

C14. More about prestressed concrete The proper modeling of prestressing requires using specific...

#### C15. More about phased calculations

C15. More about phased calculations The reader may also refer to Part 1 - D.3 Construction Phase...

#### C16. More about dynamic and seismic calculations

C16. More about dynamic and seismic calculations The dynamic solicitations generate inertial and...

#### Chapter D. Analysis and processing of the results

Chapter D. Analysis and processing of the results D.1 General information about numerical calcu...

#### D1. General information on numerical calculations

D1. General information on numerical calculations D.1.1 Calculation time Computation time (in t...

#### D2. Load combinations

D2. Load combinations D.2.1 Combinations and envelopes Recall that using a load combination co...

#### D3. Data processing

D3. Data processing D.3.1 Stresses/Deformations or Internal forces It is important to define wh...

#### D4. Normative verifications: the behavior of reinforced concrete elements

D4. Normative verifications: the behavior of reinforced concrete elements D.4.1 Reinforcement ma...

#### D5. Understanding and analyzing the peaks (case study about concrete)

D5. Understanding and analyzing the peaks (case study about concrete) The smoothing referred to ...

#### D6. Understanding and analyzing the peaks (case study about steel assembly)

D6. Understanding and analyzing the peaks (case study about steel assembly) The results of a cal...

#### D7. Further information specific to dynamic calculations

D7. Further information specific to dynamic calculations D.7.1 Total mass verification In the c...

#### Chapter E. How to ensure quality?

Chapter E. How to ensure quality? Below are some simple advice to assess the quality of the fini...

#### E1. Starting with a new software

We propose below some simple advice to deploy a quality approach in finite element calculations. ...

#### E2. Model validation using self-checking

E2. Model validation using self-checking Before exploiting the model results, several verificati...

#### E3. Traceability and group work

E3. Traceability and group work While there are projects where a single engineer will do all the...

#### Chapter F. How to properly present the finite element calculation note?

Chapter F. How to properly present the finite element calculation note? This paragraph introduce...

#### F. How to properly present the finite element calculation note?

F. How to properly present the finite element calculation note? This paragraph provides the mini...